mercoledì 2 novembre 2011

Dentifrici al fluoro? No grazie





Ricerche sulla tossicità dei fluoridi nell’acqua, nelle gomme da masticare e nel dentifricio (per accumulo progressivo) fino al 2005:

1.      Li Y, Liang C, Slemenda C, Ji R, et al. Effect of long-term exposure to fluoride in drinking water on risks of bone fractures. J Bone Miner Res 2001; 16(5):932-9.

2.      Danielson C, Lyon JL, Egger M, Goodenough GK. Hip fractures and fluoridation in Utah 's elderly population. JAMA 1992; 268(6):746-8.

3.      Cooper C, Wickham CA, Barker DJ, Jacobsen SJ. Water fluoridation and hip fracture. JAMA 1991; 266:513-4. (Letter, a reanalysis of data presented in a 1990 paper.)

4.      Takahashi K, Akiniwa K, Narita K. Regression analysis of cancer incidence rates and water fluoride in the USA . based on IACR/IARC (WHO) data (1978-1992). International Agency for Research on Cancer. J Epidemiol 2001; 11(4):170-9.

5.      Klein W, et al. DNA repair and environmental substances. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Bader-und Klimaheilkunde 1977; 24(3).

6.      Mohamed A, Chandler ME. Cytological effects of sodium fluoride on mice. Fluoride 1982; 15(3):110-8.

7.      Susheela AK, Jethanandani P. Circulating testosterone levels in skeletal fluorosis patients. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1996; 34(2):183-9.

8.      Narayana MV, Chinoy NJ. Effects of fluoride on rat testicular steroidogenesis. Fluoride 1994; 27(1):7-12.

9.      Al-Hiyasat AS, Elbetieha AM, Darmani H. Reproductive toxic effects of ingestion of sodium fluoride in female rats. Fluoride 2000; 33(2):79-84.

10.  Luke J. Fluoride deposition in the aged human pineal gland. Caries Res 2001; 35(2):125-8.

11.  Masters RD. Silicofluorides and higher blood lead: a national problem that particularly harms blacks. Dartmouth College , Hanover , NH. Videoconference--Appalachian Environmental Lab, Frostburg State University , Frostburg , MD. November 15, 2001.

12.  Masters RD, Coplan MJ, Hone BT, Dykes JE. Association of silicofluoride treated water with elevated blood lead. NeuroToxicology 2000; 21(6):1091-100.

13.  Xiang Q, Liang Y, Chen L, Wang C, et al. Effect of fluoride in drinking water on children's intelligence. Fluoride 2003; 36(2):84-94.

14.  Lu Y, Sun ZR, Wu LN , Wang X, et al. Effect of high-fluoride water on intelligence in children. Fluoride 2000; 33(2):74-8.

15.  Li XS, Zhi JL, Gao RO. Effect of fluoride exposure on intelligence in children. Fluoride 1995; 28(4):189-192 (as cited by Second Look).

16.  Li Y, Li X, Wei S. (Effect of excessive fluoride intake on mental work capacity of children and a preliminary study of its mechanism.] Article in Chinese. Hua Xi Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 1994; 25(2):188-91.

17.  Calderon J, Blenda M, Marielena N, Leticia C, et al. Influence of fluoride exposure on reaction time and visuospatial organization in children. (Annual Conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology) Epidemiology 2000; 11(4):S153 (as cited by Second Look).

18.  Calvert GM, Mueller CA, Fajen JM, Chrislip DW, et al. Health effects associated with sulfuryl fluoride and methyl bromide exposure among structural fumigation workers. Am J Public Health 1998; 88(12):1774-80.

19.  Du L. [The effect of fluorine on the developing human brain. J Article in Chinese. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi 1992; 21(4):218-20.

20.  Apetri AC, Surewicz. Atypical effect of salts on the thermodynamic stability of human prion protein. J Biol Chem 2003; 278(25):22187-92. Epub 2003 Apr03.

21.  Sun ZR, Liu FZ, Wu LN , et al. Effects of high fluoride drinking water on the cerebral functions of mice. Chinese Journal of Endemiology 2000; 19(4):262-3. As cited and abstracted in Fluoride 2001; 34(1):80.

22.  Zhang Z, Xu X, Shen X, Xu X. [Effect of fluoride exposure on synaptic structure of brain areas related to learning-memory in mice.] Article in Chinese. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 1999; 28(4):210-2.

23.  Vanaja P, Ekambaram P, Jayakumar AR. Effects of sodium fluoride on locomotor behavior and a few biochemical parameters in rats. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 1998; 6:187-91.

24.  Bhatnagar M, Rao P, Sushma J, Bhatnagar R. Neurotoxicity of fluoride: neurodegeneration in hippocampus of female mice. Indian J Exp Biol 2002; 40(5):546-54.

25.  Mullinex PJ, Denbesten PK , Schunior A, Kernan WJ. Neurotoxicity of sodium fluoride in rats. Neurotoxicol Teratol 1995; 17(2):169-77.

26.  Burgstahler AW, Colquhoun J. Neurotoxicity of fluoride. Editorial. Fluoride 1996; 29(2):57-8.

27.  Bryson C. The fluoride deception. Seven Stories Press, New York , NY , 2004, 13, 20-1.

28.  Connett E. Fluoride's effect on the brain. Fluoride Action Network Pesticides Project submission to National Research Council Committee. April 19, 2004.

29.  Zhai JX, Guo ZY, Hu CL, Wang QN, Zhu QX. [Studies on fluoride concentration and cholinesterase activity in rat hippocampus.] Article in Chinese. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 2003; 21(2):102-4

30.  Hertsgaard M, Frazer P. Fear of fluoride. Salon.com, February 17, 1999. From http://archive.salon.com/news/1999/02/17news.html.

31.  Shivarajashankara YM, Shivashankara AR, Gopalakrishna Bhat P, Muddanna Rao S, Hanumanth Rao S. Histological changes in the brain of young fluoride-intoxicated rats. Fluoride 2002; 35(1):12-21.

32.  Chen J, Chen X, Yang K, Xia T, Xie H. [Studies on DNA damage and apoptosis in rat brain induced by fluoride.] Article in Chinese. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2002; 36(4):222-4.

33.  Shivarajashankara YM, Shivashankara P, Gopalakrishna Bhat P, Hanumanth Rao S, Brain lipid peroxidation and antoxidant systems of young rats in chronic fluoride intoxication. Fluoride 2002; 35(3):197-203 (as cited by Second Look).

34.  Lakshmi Vani M, Pratap Reddy K. Effects of fluoride accumulation on some enzymes of brain and gastrocnemius muscle of mice. Fluoride 2000; 33(1):17-26 (as cited by Second Look).

35.  Long YG, Wang YN, Chen J, Jiang SF, et al. Chronic fluoride toxicity decreases the number of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat brain. Neurotoxicol Teratol 2002; 24(6):751-7.

36.  Chen J, Shan KR, Long YG, Wang YN, et al. Selective decreases of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in PC12 cells exposed to fluoride. Toxicology 2003; 183(1-3): 235-42.

37.  Shen X, Zhang Z, Xu X. [Influence of combined iodine and fluoride on phospholipid and fatty acid composition in brain cells of rats.] Article in Chinese. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2004; 33(2):158-61.

38.  Spittle B. Fluoride and intelligence. Fluoride 2000; 33(2):49-52.

39.  Varner JA, Jensen KF, Horvath W, Isaacson RL. Chronic administration of aluminum-fluoride or sodium-fluoride to rats in drinking water: alterations in neuronal and cerebrovascular integrity. Brain Res 1998; 784(1-2):284-98.

40.  Brain damage in rats from fluoridated water. Chemical & Engineering News; April 27, 1998; 29.

41.  Isaacson RA, Varner JA, Kensen KF. Toxin-induced blood vessel inclusions caused by the chronic administration of aluminum and sodium fluoride and their implications for dementia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1997; 825:152-66. As abstracted in Fluoride 1998; 31(2):96-9.

42.  Lin FF, Aihaiti, Zhao HX, Lin J, et al. The relationship of a low-iodine and high-fluoride environment to subclinical cretinism in Xinjiang. Iodine Deficiency Disorder Newsletter 1991; 7(3) (as cited by Second Look).

43.  Mikhailets ND , Balabolkin MI, Rakitin VA , Danilov IP. Thyroid function during prolonged exposure to fluorides. Probl Endokrinol 1996; 42:6-9.

44.  Gupta SK, Khan TI, Gupta RC, Gupta AB, et al. Compensatory hyperparathyroidism following high fluoride ingestion--a clinico-biochemical correlation. Indian Pediatr 2001; 38(2):139-46.

45.  Balabolkin MI, Mikhailets ND, Lobovskaia RN, Chernousova NV. [The interrepationship of the thyroid and immune statuses of workers with long-term fluoride exposure.] Article in Russian. Ter Arkh 1995; 67(1):41-2.

46.  Jooste PL, Weight MJ, Kriek JA, Louw AJ. Endemic goitre in the absence of iodine deficiency in schoolchildren of the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999; 53(1):8-12.

47.  Zhao W, Zhu H, Yu Z, Aoki K, et al. Long-term effects of various iodine and fluorine doses on the thyroid and fluorosis in mice. Endocr Regul 1998; 32(2):63-70.

48.  Trabelsi M, Guermazi F, Zeghal N. Effect of fluoride on thyroid function and cerebellar development in mice. Fluoride 2001; 34(3):165-73.

49.  Chinoy NJ, Patel TN. The influence of fluoride and/or aluminum on free radical toxicity in the brain of female mice and beneficial effects of some antidotes [abstract]. Fluoride 2000; 33; S8 (cited in Spittle).

50.  Ekambaram P, Paul V. Calcium preventing locomotor behavioral and dental toxicities of fluoride by decreasing serum fluoride level in rats. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2001; 9(4):141-6.

51.  Zhang Z, Shen X, Xu X. [Effects of selenium on the damage of learning-memory ability of mice induced by fluoride.] Article in Chinese. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2001; 30(3):144-6.

52.  Autio JT. Effect of xylitol chewing gum on salivary Streptococcus mutans in preschool children. ASDC J Dent Child 2002; 69(1):81-6, 13.

53.  Hayes C. The effect of non-cariogenic sweeteners on the prevention of dental caries: a review of the evidence. J Dent Educ 2001; 65(10):1106-9.

54.  Alanen P, Isokangas P, Gutmann K. Xylitol candies in caries prevention: results of a field study in Estonian children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2000; 28(3):218-24.

55.  Hildebrandt GH, Sparks BS. Maintaining mutans streptococci suppression with xylitol chewing gum. J Am Dent Assoc 2000; 131(7):909-16.

56.  Hujoel PP, Makinen KK, Bennett CA, Isotupa KP, et al. The optimum time to initiate habitual xylitol gum-chewing for obtaining long-term caries prevention. J Dent Res 1999; 78(3):797-803.

57.  Soderling E, Isokangas P, Pienihakkinen K, Tenovuo J. Influence of maternal xylitol consumption on acquisition of mutans streptococci by infants. J Dent Res 2000; 79(3):882-7.

58.  Makinen KK, Makinen PL, Pape HR Jr, Peldyak J, et al. Conclusion and review of the Michigan Xylitol Programme (1986-1995) for the prevention of dental caries. Int Dent J 1996; 46(1):22-34.

59.  Makinen KK, Bennett CA, Hujoel PP, Isokangas PJ, et al. Xylitol chewing gums and caries rates: a 40-month cohort study. J Dent Res 1995; 74(12):1904-13.

60.  Makinen KK, Makinen PL , Pape HR Jr, Allen P, et al. Stabilisation of rampant caries: polyol gums and arrest of dentine caries in two long-term cohort studies in young subjects. Int Dent J 1995; 45(1 Suppl 1):93-107.

61.  Roberts MC, Riedy CA, Coldwell SE, Nagahama S, et al. How xylitol-containing products affect cariogenic bacteria. J Am Dent Assoc 2002; 133(4):435-41; quiz 492-3.

62.  Soderling E, Isokangas P, Tenovuo J, Mustakallio S, Makinen KK. Long-term xylitol consumption and mutans streptococci in plaque and saliva. Caries Res 1991; 25(2):153-7.

63.  Petersson LG, Birkhed D, Gleerup A, Johansson M, Jonsson G. Caries-preventive effect of dentrifices containing various types and concentrations of fluorides and sugar alcohols. Caries Res 1991; 25(1):74-9.

64.  Machiulskience V, Nyvad B, Baelum V. Caries preventive effect of sugar-substituted chewing gum. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2001; 29(4):278-88.

65.  Gales MA, Nguyen TM. Sorbitol compared with xylitol in prevention of dental caries. Ann Pharmacother 2000; 34(1):98-100.

66.  Makinen KK, Hujoel PP, Bennett CA, Isokangas P, et al. A descriptive report of the effects of a 16-month xylitol chewing gum programme subsequent to a 40-month sucrose gum programme. Caries Res 1998; 32(2):107-12.

67.  Makinen KK, Chiego DJ Jr, Allen P, Bennett C, et al. Physical, chemical, and histologic changes in dentin caries lesions of primary teeth induced by regular use of polyol chewing gums. Acta Odontol Scand 1998; 56(3):148-56.

68.  Calamari SE, Azcurra AI, Luna Maldonado ER, Battellino LJ, et al. Effects of xylitol, sorbitol and fluoride mouthrinses on glucose clearance in adolescents. Acta Odontol Latinoam 1997; 10(1):25-36.

69.  Makinen KK, Pemberton D, Makinen PL, Chen CY, et al. Polyol-combinant saliva stimulants and oral health in Veterans Affairs patients--an exploratory study. Spec Care Dentist 1996; 16(3):104-15.

70.  Trahan L, Bourgeau G, Breton R. Emergence of multiple xylitol-resistant fructose PTS-mutants from human isolates of mutans streptococci during growth on dietary sugars in the presence of xylitol. J Dent Res 1996; 75(11):1892-900.

71.  Scheinin A, Soderling E, Scheinin U, Glass RL, Kallio ML. Xylitol-induced changes of enamel microhardness paralleled by microradiographic observations. Acta Odontol Scand 1993; 51(4):241-6.

72.  Isogangas P, Makinen KK, Tiesko J, Alanen P. Long-term effect of xylitol chewing gum in the prevention of dental caries: a follow-up 5 years after termination of a prevention program. Caries Res 1993; 27(6):495-8.

3 commenti:

Francesco Botto ha detto...

riguardo al fluoro, 2 anni fa mi sono posto il problema per i bambini e mi sono informato sul web. Il fluoro è tossico se ingerito (come nel caso delle pastiglie), ma rinforza i denti senza restare tossico se non ingerito. Quindi (1) metto poco dentifricio e (2) controllo bene che i miei figli lo sputino. A questo punto è meglio un dentifricio al fluoro con sapore non gradevole!!! Francesco

Stefano Fait ha detto...

ci sono un mucchio di dentifrici senza fluoro che funzionano molto bene.
Gli stessi dentisti non ne consigliano l'uso. La mia dentista e questi qui (ad esempio):
http://www.dentisti-italia.it/dentista/odontoiatria/133_il-fluoro-fa-male.html.
Non vedo perché rischiare, specialmente con dei bambini.

Francesca Riolo ha detto...

So che può sembrare poco gradevole, ma un ottimo detergente per i denti con moltissime altre proprietà è l'argilla verde ventilata. Cercando su internet sin trovano un sacco di info a riguardo. Molto interessante ed efficace!Comunque non è necessario acquistare quella con il marchio! le erboristerie la vendono anche a peso! e forse, cercando bene, si "rischia" trovare un piccolo ma splendido Manuale sull'uso dell'argilla, in librerie dell'usato, in rete (o... scaricarlo?). Io lo avevo, ho sbagliato a prestarlo perché non è più tornato, e purtroppo non lo pubblicano più. Certo ne esistono altri... ma quello era davvero ottimo, sigh!